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X-ray image intensifier tube

X-ray image intensifier tube “enhance” or increase the brightness of an image through two processes:
(1) shrinking, emitting a given number of visible light photons from a smaller area;
(2) Flux gain, when electrons accelerated by high pressure strike more than visible light photons when they hit the screen.

9 inch image intensifier structure
The “night vision” device used in the military also uses this principle to observe targets in low light conditions.
X-ray photons impinge on a phosphor screen (input screen) with a slightly convex surface with a diameter ranging from 4 inches to 16 inches. The fluorescent emulsion of the input screen is a thin layer of cesium iodide (Csl). The earlier X-ray image intensifier tube input screen consisted of zinc cadmium sulfide (ZnS: CdS). The main advantage of CsI over ZnS:CdS:Ag is that it increases the absorption of X-rays due to the presence of higher Z (atomic number) components in the CsI phosphor and the accumulation of CsI molecules in the fluorescent particles. Higher density.


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